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Emission factors by Scope 1, 2 and 3

Data source provider

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

Use cases

Climate-related disclosures, Exposure quantification, Financial stability monitoring, Investment and lending decisions, Scenario analysis, Stress testing

Data group

GHG emissions

Metric Type


Methodology/ Standard / Classification/ Taxonomy / Reference

1. GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard
2. 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National GHG Inventories / Malaysia Biennial Update Report to UNFCCC
3. Annual Greenhouse Gas index

Unit (e.g. CO2)

Grid emission factor (tCO2/MWh)

Dimension (e.g. Sector, Customer)

By Country

Time horizon 




Time series

2009- 2023



Observation on data availability/gaps

The List of Grid Emission Factors aims to provide information to be utilized for research and analysis regarding emissions from electricity generation.
The database provides two types of grid: (1) CDM-based grid emission factors, those calculated and utilized by each registered CDM project and (2) Official grid emission factors published by host country governments or published as CDM standardized baseline approved by the CDM Executive Board

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